Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism

Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism

Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism

Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism

Astigmatism, Myopia, and Hyperopia – all these words float around when we visit an eye care center or even when we surf the internet and you might get confused about. But don’t worry, all your confusion regarding myopia vs hyperopia vs astigmatism will end today as we deeply understand what they mean.

Although several differences set these terms apart, one thing they have in common is that they are refractive errors that affect human vision. Individuals suffering from any of these conditions face issues with seeing objects clearly that are either near or far.

But what are the critical differences when it comes to myopia vs hyperopia vs astigmatism that set them apart? What are myopia causes, hyperopia symptoms, astigmatism causes, and several other important information. So, let’s find out!

What Is Myopia?

Myopia is commonly known as Nearsightedness. It is a condition that causes distant objects to appear blurry; however, the nearby objects can be seen clearly. It affects human eyes usually in childhood and can progress until the late teens or early twenties. Regular eye check ups are crucial for detection. It’s correctable with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

What Causes Myopia?

When the Cornea (the outermost transparent layer of the eye) is curved more than usual, it causes the entering light to focus before where it should, that is the retina. There is still uncertainty about the exact myopia causes, but eye experts believe it to be a mix of hereditary and environmental factors. Spending a lot of time doing “close-up” work, like reading or using screens can also be major Myopia causes.

Symptoms of Myopia

Significant Myopia symptoms include. 

  • Unconsciously squint
  • Eyestrain 
  • Headache after prolonged focus on distant objects 
  • Difficulty seeing at night
  • Frequent changes in prescription, notably in children 

Regular eye check-ups are crucial for accurate diagnosis and timely correction, as well as limiting myopia symptoms and ensuring optimal eye health.

Also read about SILK Surgery for Myopia Patient.

What Is Hyperopia?

Hyperopia, commonly known as farsightedness, is a vision condition where distant objects are seen more clearly than close ones. This occurs when the eyeball is too short or the cornea has too little curvature, causing light to focus behind the retina instead of directly on it. The result is blurred vision for close objects.

What Causes Hyperopia?

The major Hyperopia causes are certain structural defects in the retina, like:

  • Small-sized eye-ball
  • Non-circular lenses
  • Cornea flatter than usual
  • Defective blood vessels in the retina
  • Weak ciliary muscle
  • Changes in the refractive index of the lens
  • Alterations in lens position or absence of lens
  • Low converging power of eye lens

Regular eye exams are essential to monitor and address changes in vision.

Symptoms of Hyperopia

Hyperopia symptoms include difficulty focusing on close objects, eye strain, headaches, and general discomfort when performing tasks that require near vision, such as reading. 

Eyeglasses or contact lenses with convex lenses are common treatments for hyperopia. These lenses help to bring the focus of light directly onto the retina, improving close-up vision. Refractive surgery is another option for correcting it by reshaping the cornea. 

What Is Astigmatism?

Astigmatism is a common eye refractive error that affects how light rays enter through the cornea (the front surface of the eye) and focus on the retina. Instead of having a spherical shape like a basketball,  the cornea is more oval or football-shaped in astigmatism. This irregular curvature can cause blurred or distorted vision at various distances, as light entering the eye fails to get properly focused on the retina.

What Causes Astigmatism?

The primary astigmatism causes are an irregular shape of the cornea or, less commonly, the lens inside the eye. While the exact origins of astigmatism are not always clear, it can be present from birth and may change over time. Genetic factors, eye injuries, and certain eye surgeries can contribute to the development of astigmatism.

Symptoms of Astigmatism

Major astigmatism symptoms can include blurred or distorted vision, eye strain, headaches, and difficulty seeing clearly at night. Squinting may also be a common reflex as individuals attempt to compensate for the visual distortion caused. Regular eye tests are crucial for diagnosing and correcting astigmatism, often through the use of eyeglasses or contact lenses to minimize the effects of uneven corneal shape.

Astigmatism is a common and treatable condition, and with appropriate correction, individuals with astigmatism can achieve clear and comfortable vision. Regular eye check-ups are essential to monitor any changes in prescription and ensure optimal eye health.

Key Differences Between Myopia, Hyperopia, and Astigmatism

Highlighting the key differences between myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism: PLease add this in a table format

Characteristic Myopia (Nearsightedness) Hyperopia (Farsightedness) Astigmatism
Definition Difficulty seeing distant objects clearly;near vision is usually unaffected. Difficulty seeing close objects clearly; distant vision is often clearer. Blurred or distorted vision caused by an irregularly shaped cornea or lens
Causes Eyeball is too long or cornea is too curved Eyeball is too short or cornea has insufficient curvature Irregular shape of the cornea or lens.
Symptoms Blurred distance vision, eye strain headaches Blurred close vision, eye strain, discomfort Blurred or distorted vision.eye strain, headaches
Corrective Lenses Concave lenses (negative power) to diverge lights Convex lenses (positive power) to converge light Cylindrical lenses to compensate for uneven cornea/lens curvatures
Prevalence Common;often develops during childhood Common;may become more noticeable with age Common;may be present from birth or develop later


Diagnosis and Eye Exams

Regular eye exams are crucial for early detection, allowing timely correction. Diagnosis not only addresses vision issues but also aids in monitoring overall eye health, detecting potential problems beyond refractive errors. 

Myopia (Nearsightedness):

  • Visual Acuity Test:

Difficulty with distant vision is assessed using an eye chart.

  • Refraction Test:

Lenses are adjusted with a phoropter to determine the prescription needed.

  • Retinal Examination:

Instruments examine the back of the eye for abnormalities.


Hyperopia (Farsightedness):

  • Visual Acuity Test:

Blurred vision up close is identified through an eye chart.

  • Refraction Test:

A phoropter determines the prescription for correction.

  • Retinal Examination:

The health of the eyes is assessed, focusing on the retina.



  • Visual Acuity Test:

Blurred or distorted vision at various distances is noted.

  • Refraction Test:

Specialized tests measure corneal curvature for astigmatism detection.

  • Retinal Examination:

A thorough eye health check, including the retina, is conducted.


Treatment Options 

Eyeglasses or contact lenses are the most common solutions that help people with these conditions see better. However, those who prefer freedom from using vision aids like contacts and glasses could undergo refractive surgeries like SILK, SMILE, CONTOURA VISION, LASIK, ICL, OR PRK. Planet Lasik is the only eye care center in North-India to offer all of them under one roof. Our eye specialists are experts with cutting-edge technology and years of experience in this field. Get in touch for an appointment.


Making Informed Decisions: Choosing the Right Vision Correction

Choosing the right vision correction method requires deep consideration about the lifestyle, comfort, and eye health. Glasses are convenient and suitable for all, while contact lenses offer a natural field of view. Refractive surgeries provide a permanent solution. Also, consider budget, maintenance, and consult with your eye care professional for personalized advice. 


Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism FAQs

  • Are there any preventative measures to minimize the risk of myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism?

To minimize the risk of myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism, adopt healthy eye habits such as taking regular breaks from screens, maintaining a balanced diet, and ensuring proper lighting conditions. Regular eye check-ups are also essential.


  • How often should one have their eyes checked for these conditions?

It is generally recommended to have a comprehensive eye exam every year for adults, and more frequently for those with specific risk factors or existing eye conditions to detect issues early and maintain overall eye health.


  • How prevalent are these refractive errors in the population?

Refractive errors, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, are highly prevalent worldwide. The exact prevalence varies by region, age group, and other factors.


  • Are there surgical solutions like LASIK or PRK for these conditions?

LASIK and PRK are surgical solutions primarily, but they are not typically employed to address other eye conditions such as glaucoma or cataracts. Consultation with an eye care professional is essential to determine the most appropriate treatment for you.


  • What’s the best course of action if I suspect I have one of these vision issues?

If you suspect a vision issue, it’s crucial to schedule an appointment with an eye care professional, for a comprehensive eye examination.

Leave a comment

Planet LASIK » Blog » Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Astigmatism
lasik survey
book lasik appointment
Book an
book lasik appointment
Locate Us